2-10 All fair comparisons and outcomes should be reported

Many fair comparisons never get published, and outcomes are sometimes left out. Those that do get published are more likely to report favourable results. As a consequence, reliance on published reports sometimes results in the beneficial effects of treatments being overestimated and the adverse effects being underestimated. Biased under-reporting of research is a major problem that is far from being solved. It is scientific and ethical malpractice, and wastes research resources.

Be aware of the risk of biased underreporting of fair comparisons, whether or not the authors of systematic reviews have addressed this risk.

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